Quelques jours après le vote du Brexit au Royaume-Uni, il parait indispensable de s’intéresser aux conséquences économiques et politiques que va provoquer cette décision. Cet article a été écrit quelques jours avant la décision du 23 juin. Nous anticipions alors les différentes conséquences de cet événement, par rapport au monde, à l’Union Européenne et au premier ministre désormais déchu, David Cameron.


The Brexit is the possibility that Great Britain could leave the European Union. During the last general elections in May 2015, David Cameron promised to organize a referendum about the possibility of a Brexit in 2016. As Cameron promised, the referendum will be on June, 23rd. Nowadays, in the British population, there is a real desire to quit the European Union because the United Kingdom is faring better than other countries like Spain or France and they think they could do better if they were not part of the European Union. This is not the first time there has been a referendum about Britain’s membership in Europe: a few decades ago, in 1975, they chose to stay in the European Economic Community (EEC) as Britain was weak economically while the EEC was strong. However, today’s new challenges illustrate the opposite and this situation could trigger a split between the island and the continent.

I) David Cameron and the Brexit

David Cameron is determined to maintain Britain’s membership in the European Union: he is against a Brexit. After having negotiated with the European Union, David Cameron said that he will « put heart and soul » into staying in the European Union.

In fact, this new deal gives a « special » settlement to the United Kingdom in the European Union and besides, it allows them to stop paying the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy), to reduce the quota of migrants.

However, as he said during his annual interview on BBC1, he will « remain Prime Minister if he loses the European referendum », but his stance on Brexit could affect his power and discredit his authority. In fact, whatever happens, he will be weakened by this campaign, because according to statistics 43% of people are in favor of a Brexit, 39% want to remain in the European Union, and 18% don’t know what their future choice will be; so he will divide nearly half of the British public opinion. In case of a Brexit, he will have no choice: he’ll have to resign because it will mean that the major part of the population disagrees with his policy. As a conclusion, David Cameron could be really weakened by this event and it could ignite an in-fighting in British political parties.

On the other hand, we can say that he doesn’t fear to take risks for what he believes is the best for his country and doesn’t act for selfish reasons, because this referendum will be a chancy affair.

II) Great Britain faced with the Brexit

        Currently, several referendums have been organized to ask the United Kingdom’s people their opinion about such a decision. The pollsters reveal a split in public opinion. As a matter of fact, a departure of Britain would generate many changes in Europe but more importantly, it could divide the entire United Kingdom. While David Cameron considers this decision may be beneficial to the economy, his opinion creates a few divisions. First, for the British people which is split according to the latest pollsters: the UK Independence Party, half of the Conservatives MPs, the DUP and several politicians from the Labour party are in favour of leaving. According to Brexit supporters, the European Union is imposing too many rules about business and taxes that hold Britain back, while it is considered as one of the most developed countries in Europe, so they want to develop the country freely, out of the European economic borders. Moreover, they disagree with the European migrant’s policy, they want to take control over their borders.

However, this point of view is not shared by all: David Cameron and the Labour Party, the SNP, the Plaid Cymru and the Lib Dems are all in favour of staying in. Even Barack Obama has given his point of view saying he would rather see Britain remain in Europe, and other countries agree with him: France and Germany. These countries consider that Britain’s departure would damage Britain’s power in the world by reducing its ability to exchange with other European members and would isolate it. This isolation could turn into a real problem because of the terrorist climate, Britain could be a special target.

The Brexit debate leads to another question: the one of the United Kingdom’s unity. For the Scottish people who really want to stay in the European Union a Brexit would lead to its independence from the rest of the United Kingdom. Similarly, the Northern Irish status could change too.

In Great Britain, the Brexit decision has more consequences than just the departure from an economic organization.

III) Europe and the world: what are the consequences ?

The split between Europe and the United Kingdom could have several consequences on the European Union. The Brexit could trigger many changes in an economic and political organization that used to be guided by two mains countries: Germany and the United Kingdom. Moreover, because of the Scottish contestations about it and the demonstrations that may follow, Europe would be weakened for a long time. This unclear situation would contribute to strengthening Russia’s influence, according to the analysts. However, Russia is not known for being a great democracy. Thus the Brexit could represent quite a big threat for all the countries in Europe. Moreover, Greece is considered as being too involved in the crisis to be saved, therefore a « Grexit » is considered as a solution to keep Europe as a strong organization. Similarly, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Denmark and Sweden are thinking of a possibility to leave the European Union. This domino effect would be in favour of Euroscepticism.

Nonetheless, these consequences are not only political, there is an economic dimension as well. On the one hand it is considered that the Brexit could lead the European Union to its own disintegration because Great Britain was considered as a leader in the economic organization. As a matter of fact, London is considered as the first financial place in the world. Its power would be an argument to prove the economic leadership of the European Union and ability to trade with other countries. On the other hand, the Brexit means that Great Britain won’t be politically involved in European affairs anymore. Nevertheless, globalization has led to the need for countries to be united, to be stronger and able to contest hot topics that would be too big for the countries alone. During his visit in England in April, Barack Obama talked about the possibility of a trade agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States of America even if he considers the Brexit as a political and economic disaster.


A few days ago, the citizens of the United Kingdom chose to leave the European Union. A few minutes after the announcement, the value of the Sterling fell by 5% in Japan. Even if the economic consequences seem to be under control for the moment, there will be consequences all around the world. Moreover, David Cameron has finally decided to resign after the announcement and he said that he will let the new Prime Minister take the responsibility for the Brexit.

Nigel Farage, the leader of UKIP, asked for the constitution of a « Brexit government ». Until now, no one knows who the next Prime Minister will be and which party will guide the United Kingdom to the Brexit.

Alexis FALLAIT, Barbara CASTRO & Alexia WANGALA.


Season 2015/2016 : the end of a hegemony in the Premier League ?

Le club de Leicester est en train de réaliser un exploit au sein de la Premier League. Cet exploit pourrait renverser une hégémonie installée depuis longtemps, ce qui rend le parcours de Leicester encore plus attractif.


This year, every specialist of English football is talking about a revolution. This year’s most famous football championship in the world will remain engraved in our memory. Since the 1994-1995 season and the victory of the Blackburn Rovers Football club, all the trophies have been won by only four teams- Manchester United, Arsenal, Chelsea and Manchester City- nicknamed “the Big Four”. Obviously, the Leicester City FC achievement is good news for the Premier League according to all those who follow the championship: it highlights the magic of football. Moreover, football is both a form of entertainment and a business; this spectacle will for instance generate 2.3 billion euros in television broadcasting only in 2016. This major shift in the hierarchy gives a new boost to the Premier League, which is more competitive than the other European championships. Indeed, the English league is one of the only football competitions where the twelfth ranked team can covet the first place in the first stages of the championship. That is what is happening to Leicester City: it is a dream.

     Moreover, Leicester has made an incredible comeback. In fact, one year ago, the club ranked 20th  and  ended the season with a few extra points compared to the last team thanks to a sensational season finish. This didn’t prevent Leicester’s board from dismissing Nigel Pearson (who had won the championship in 2014) in order to hire Claudio Ranieri during the summer 2015.

            This season has been crucial for the club, who recruited a few players like the Frenchman N’Golo Kanté, whose recruitment is considered by some specialists as the best signing of the season; or Robert Huth who has been one of the best defenders of the league since the beginning of the season. Leicester’s recruitments have been made at a lower cost compared to those of the other big Premier League’s teams. For example, Leicester managed to beat Manchester City 3-0 with a 30 million euro team against a 400 million one. If  Leicester’s transfers have definitely been a real success, the Foxes are led by two players who were already there last year: Riyad Mahrez, who was born in Sarcelles and had never played in Ligue 1 (the best French league) and had never attracted a big French club. The downright refusal of Vincent Labrune to have Mahrez in his team – Labrune is the president of the Olympique de Marseille ( a French team in Ligue 1) – illustrates well the poor attraction of R. Mahrez. Jamie Vardy’s story is even more incredible. He discovered the professional world at 26 and became three years later an international class striker, one of the best in the league. Today, the duo is without a doubt the best in the Premier League. Finally, if it’s hard to believe the failures of the biggest teams like Chelsea, Manchester United (or, on another scale, Manchester City) even after this incredible season Leicester is having, the achievements of the board and the staff have to be highlighted.

     Today, Leicester’s hopes have become real in winning the Premier League, but now they need to win the next one to show the world that it wasn’t a fluke.


Fabrice ANDRIA, Issam HYJAZI & Romain CHAIX

Climate change-related issues in the UK

The World Health Organization made a critical statement about air quality in the world’s biggest countries because pollution is worsening and threatening citizens’ health. On a global scale, a “public health emergency” urges the government to provide financial support. Many factors such as toxic gases, construction dust, and transport fumes are causing this climate crisis. There are different kinds of polluting factors that contribute to global warming. Every substance introduced into the atmosphere that has damaging effects on living things and the environment is considered as being part of air pollution. It comes principally from cars, factories, homes, and power plants that burn fossil fuels.

            According to a new report made by the WHO, London went beyond its pollution limit in 2015 even if, in 2013, the WHO had declared that pollution was carcinogenic (people exposed to polluted air are likely to have lung problems and cancers). In China, pollution has more tremendous consequences on people’s lives than in any other country. On January 11th they had to close schools and restrict traffic as the pollution rate was ten times higher than recommended by the WHO. Reducing pollution is not only a  matter of health but also of money because the more people get sick the more NHS spendings will be on the rise. It also leads to more absenteeism at work. For instance, in 2015, the spendings and financial losses related to these issues represented more than 100 billion dollars for France.

            Air Pollution has an impact on global warming : greenhouse effect gases such as carbon dioxide or methane remain in the atmosphere and trap the sun’s heat. Coal-burning power plants are the most important polluters of the United States with a production of 2.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide every year. Automobiles come second with an annual production of 1.5 billion tons of C02. Thus the United States is the largest source of global warming pollution, producing 25% of the CO2 pollution (more than India and China combined). An other important air pollution-related issue is that it harms living species, directly or indirectly, via their habitat, food, and water.

            Extreme weather events are the main consequences of climate change and air pollution, such as the recent coastal floods in the United Kingdom. In fact, like climate change, events such as floods tend to be more frequent, they cause more and more damage and cost a lot to the government. Measures have to be taken to reduce risks in the future. The Health Professional Alliance to Combat Climate Change, an alliance in the United Kingdom, said that to fight climate change we must quickly take action on the improvement of air quality, the increase of clean transportation, nutrition and healthcare in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom tries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the air quality by controlling emissions and concentrations of harmful pollutants in the environment. It launched new measures despite the limits put by budget constraints. The country could reach a better reduced rate of national emissions than the one expected in compliance with the objectives defined by the Kyoto Protocol— it would be a better performance than those of many countries in the OECD. However this reduction is in part due to the use of other greenhouse gases than CO2 such as nitrous oxide or methane, which are also causing climate change.


Sources :

The Guardian

The Weather Network

National Geographic

Urban Farms



Un concept est en train de renaître à Londres : les fermes urbaines. Le principe de ces fermes est que l’on peut venir y travailler en tant que bénévole. Ce système permet d’avoir une vie sociale plus enrichissante, de rencontrer ses voisins, de partager une passion que l’on a avec d’autres.


Urban farms began to appear in London at the end of the 90s. This type of farming is turned toward cities and uses resources, urban workforce, and wastes, thanks to composting for example.

This phenomenon is gaining more and more ground in London. All of its urban farms are gathered in a federation called the Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens (FCFCG). This Federation helps city farms and community gardens by financing some of their projects, for instance.

There are two types of urban farms: city farms and community gardens. Their aims are practically identical but city farms are more turned toward animals, whereas community gardens are taking care of fruit and vegetables.

These farms are based on voluntary work but employees are also present in these organizations so it is a new way to find a job that did not exist twenty years ago.

People who work in these farms are looking for a breath of fresh air, literally and figuratively, and a break from the urban world. This is also a way to improve the local environment and the wildlife.

One of the main aims is to learn new skills: both adults and children want to learn more about agriculture. In fact, a lot of farms have partnerships with schools so that children can come and visit those farms. This concept improves community life because it helps people meet their neighbours. You can come as a visitor but you can work as well by taking part in the activities or taking care of animals.

This is also a source of money because they sell all the vegetables they produce at various markets. For instance, one of these farms is called Growing Communities (in Hackney) and it sells organic fruit and veg boxes.

This tendency is becoming increasingly important. In fact there is a festival called City Harvest Festival, which is organized every year in September.

Urban farms bring back the type of farming that used to be present in the old days, but is this just the latest fad or a sustainable “revolution”? By revolution, we can imply a return to the origins with the type of farming that people used to practice. We can also see a revolution as a break from all new types of intensive farming that are more and more present. I think that the two ideas are related and that, by getting involved in urban farms, people may want to protest against a new type of farming that they believe is harmful.




The Ramsey Curse


Lately, the young Welshman Aaron Ramsey has struck again. This is not the first time he has hit the headlines of the world press. But what did he do?

Name: Aaron Ramsey

Place and date of birth: 26 December 1990 in Caerphilly (Wales)

Nationality:  Welsh

Profession: professional football player

Team: Arsenal FC London

Records: Ben Laden, Steve Jobs, Kadhafi, Whitney Houston, Videla, Paul Walker, Robin Williams, Bowie, Alan Rickman and Nancy Reagan

The football killer

Aaron Ramsey is an Arsenal football player. As a midfielder, his purpose doesn’t consist in scoring but passing the ball, making the transition between defence and attack (box-to-box player). Surprisingly enough, when he scores, this is not just a goal: for each goal scored, an important person dies within a few hours. The last one was Nancy Reagan.


For some, Ramsey scored the good fight, with Ben Laden and Kadhafi. Unfortunately, Whitney Houston, Ray Williams, Boris Berevosky died the day after he scored a goal: this is obvious now, it’s a curse!

For 5 years, the curse hasn’t stopped, adding new victims to his records. These people were loved by the public: Paul Walker was the symbol of the Fast and Furious blockbuster movies; Alan Rickman was one of the main Harry Potter characters; David Bowie was a star who had a deep influence on the world of culture.

Recently Nancy Reagan became another victim of the curse. She was Ronald Reagan’s wife.

Should we let Aaron Ramsey play football again?

Today, before each game in which Ramsey plays, Arsenal fans dread Aaron Ramsey’s next goal, which might be associated with the death of a new victim, and some hope he will not score. His teammates and Arsene Wenger (the coach) are in big trouble: Wenger doesn’t know if he should select him for the next games. His teammates are confused because Ramsey plays well and is a key player.

The club even removed Ramsey’s jersey from all stores. In churches, priests and pastors now pray to prevent Ramsey from scoring…

If people feel that way towards him, should the FA (Football Association) or even the FIFA take the decision to ban him from entering the football pitch? Should we let Aaron Ramsey play football again?

The problem is very serious, it affects a lot of celebrities, who fear they might be the next one on the list. We can compare this situation with Tsugumi Oba’s famous manga in which the main character has the right to life or death. Public opinion wants him to retire, no one wants other deaths.

But enough with all the drama, we can’t ban a man from playing football because of a pseudo curse; we do not have any evidence. After all, Ramsey was on the pitch seen by thousands of witnesses when the deaths occurred.

Be careful with superstition

Believing in superstition is dangerous. These are only coincidences; every day many more or less famous celebrities die. With that kind of reasoning, we could find a lot of other football players whose goals are similarly followed by the death of a celebrity. Ramsey is no killer, just a regular football player.

Don’t worry Ramsey, you’re not guilty, keep scoring.



BREXIT: A blessing or a curse ?

Le 23 juin 2016 est une date cruciale pour le Royaume-Uni. En effet c’est ce jour là qu’aura lieu le référendum sur le maintien du pays dans l’Union Européenne à la demande du premier ministre David Cameron.

Si à ce jour l’issue du résultat est toujours incertaine, les hypothèses sur les conséquences du retrait du Royaume-Uni et les réactions à propos du Brexit, elles, ne se font pas attendre.


If there were a Brexit, what would be the consequences on the United Kingdom and the European Union? This is a question that is on everyone’s mind whether people are enthusiastic regarding Britain’s future or are, on the contrary, worried about it.

According to Open Europe’s last report, the UK GDP could be 2.2% lower in 2030 if Britain left the EU and failed to strike a deal with the EU or went back to protectionism. In a best case scenario, with the UK managing to agree on trade arrangements with the EU and the rest of the world, Britain could be better off by 1.6% of GDP in 2030 .

However, most people agree that it would be a disaster economically. Some of the main concerns are that it could increase the cost of transporting goods, discourage investors, and make it more difficult for businesses to operate across borders.  But more importantly, Brexit could also increase the unemployment rate.  According to Blackrock, the world’s largest fund manager, Brexit could have a major impact on the UK’s economy as it would most likely lower economic growth and investment. The British currency, Britain’s financial industry, the London property market and the fashion industry would not be safe either. Moreover the City could also be seriously affected by this exit as it contributes to Britain’s tax revenues. A loss of 10% workers could lead to a loss of £3bn in annual employment taxes for the government. Moreover, what makes Brexit problematic is that it could bring trade balance problems. Since most British exports go to EU countries, Brexit could have an impact on trade but also create a less hospitable atmosphere, poisoning future trade negotiations between countries. Many foreign companies might also choose to reduce their business in the UK. The Guardian reported that food corporations like Nestlé, car companies (Hyundai and Ford) as well as the U.S. investment bank Goldman Sachs have said that they might consider doing that.

Numerous public business figures agree with these reports and they all have different reasons to back up their claims.

« A disaster for UK science » says Stephen Hawking who, together with 150 members of the Royal Society, signed a letter in favour of staying in the UE. European students are the future of  British science according to him. If the country were to leave the UE, it would slow down  research in the UK because those who contribute to research projects mostly come from Europe. The country must then continue to attract these European students in order to attract other students from abroad. In addition, leaving the UE would cause a loss of free movement for scientists, which is an important consequence, as seen in Switzerland. In fact, Switzerland struggles to attract young students as it has approved a series of restrictive regulations concerning the free movement of workers. And the UK is likely to follow in Switzerland’s footsteps. For Stephen Hawking, science should be on an equal footing with infrastructure projects, farming or manufacturing. Moreover the link between science and the free movement of scientists matters as  much as the link between free trade and market economics.


Public opinion is still divided about Brexit and so is the newspaper The Sun who has used the same tone for its 55 editorials on Europe : a sceptical one. But for the editor in chief Tony Gallagher, this does not mean that the newspaper has taken a side. Even though businessman Rupert Murdoch, the owner of The Sun, is a devotee eurosceptical, The Sun and its editor in chief did not officially back up Mr Murdoch. Gallagher recently told the Newsworks conference that the choice was left to the readers of the newspaper.

However if The Sun did not choose a side, it sure did on behalf of the Queen.


This cover illustrates the Queen’s position except that it is not true according to Buckingham Palace who quickly complained to the Independent Press Standards Organisation. This goes back to 2011 during a lunch at Windsor castle when the Queen expressed her anger towards former deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg during a discussion about Europe. Michael Gove, the pro-Brexit justice secretary, was pointed at as the potential source of the leak but nothing has officially been declared yet. The Sun still stands by its story, saying that its sources are trustworthy. Even if a discussion about Europe did happen in 2011 between the Queen and Nick Clegg, it did not necessarily have a link with today’s events. According to the Palace, it is just a coincidence. If Ipso stands by the Palace’s side, The Sun might be forced to publish a frontpage apology and it will not be the first time they do so.

Now if BREXIT really does happen, Britain will have to face difficult choices in order to bring the country’s stability back :

  • Beyond the border: Opening the UK economy to trade agreements with the rest of the world will be essential to post-Brexit economic growth. However, this would mean exposing UK firms and workers to whole new levels of competition from low-cost countries, and would therefore be politically quite sensitive.
  • On the border:  In order to be competitive outside the EU, Britain would need to keep a liberal policy on labour migration. However, most of the people who are in favor of a Brexit argue that limiting free movement and immigration are their main motivations. It will be tough for pro-Brexit voters to make a wise decision while staying true to themselves as labour migration will be necessary to maintain the country’s stability.

Lastly, Brexit could trigger a domino effect by encouraging other Eurosceptic parties elsewhere in the EU to leave the union. According to the online publication Politico, some parties in the Czech Republic have raised the possibility of a Czexit. The Politico article quoted the country’s state secretary for EU affairs who said that a Brexit would make it “politically much more acceptable” for others to propose exits. In the worst case scenario, this would mean the end of the EU as we know it.

Mona CHERFI, Nasla COMBO & Scilia TRAN




Au-delà des monuments vus et revus du Royaume-Uni, nous vous proposons de découvrir une facette méconnue du patrimoine d’outre-manche. Sortez des sentiers battus à la découverte du château de Highclere, du Centre d’artisanat et de design de Manchester ou des souterrains hantés du château d’Edimbourg. 


If you have followed the adventures of the Grantham family and their servants through the different seasons of Downton Abbey, then Highclere Castle is the place to go: it will immerse you in the atmosphere of the TV drama series and enable you to go behind the scenes. This is indeed where most of the scenes were set and you will discover filming secrets and anecdotes the guides will be delighted to tell you. You can go on Downton Abbey-themed tours that are organized there.

The success of the series also enabled Highclere Castle to obtain funds to launch repair programs for some parts of the castle, so that you could discover more of its secrets… But there is no need to be a big fan of the series to discover this beautiful Victorian-style castle located not far from Oxford as you could still admire the architecture, the Egyptian exhibition of objects inherited from the 5th Earl of Carnarvon, and also the surrounding 1000 acre parkland.

Even Queen Elizabeth II spent some time there before her 90th birthday celebration.

So if Her Majesty appreciates the place, why wouldn’t you?

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Manchester Craft and Design Centre is located in Manchester’s Northern Quarter. It was built in 1873 as a retail fish market during the reign of Queen Victoria. It’s a place where residents used to come and get together. But a century later, it fell into disuse. So people decided to rebuild this establishment. Thus, the disused fish market became the Manchester Craft Village which opened its doors to the public in 1982 in Manchester City.

People have preserved this historic building and revived it with creative enterprise. Today, it is the paradise of local craftsmen and designers. There are 25 shops that offer different original and beautiful craftsmanship pieces created by high-skilled people. If you come to Manchester and you have no gift idea for your friend don’t forget to go to the Design Centre. Here, you will find some original costume jewellery, some amazing paintings, hand-made objects and many other objects to enhance your home design.

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You will not only discover the British Designers’ world but also enjoy special British homemade cuisine in the Café Bar. It is a place that could be a milestone of your journey in Manchester City.


The Hidden Story of Edinburgh

Edinburgh is a Scottish city, which is famous for its mysterious and supernatural phenomena. The city has two well-defined areas: the neoclassical new town and the medieval old town. Having the reputation of being the most haunted city, Edinburg is certainly the best place to experience an extremely unbelievable trip. The best destination is without a doubt Edinburgh Castle. Built in the 12th century, the building seems to have travelled through the ages. Edinburgh castle still rises undamaged over the city. Within this beautiful medieval building, there are a lot of unexplainable appearances that scientists cannot solve with modern technology.

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Many of those who have the courage to step in that old building have reported that during their visit they can sometimes feel a cold hand touching their body, a sudden drop of temperature when they change rooms, or even witness a real ghost flying or walking. Many locals tried to explain those supernatural cases. It was a castle which had been a former prison for the soldiers of the seven years’ war and an execution place for those who had been suspected of witchcraft during the 16th century. Based on rumours, people say the ghosts might have reappeared from that time and want to take revenge on people who hurt them. Among them, there are a headless drummer boy, a phantom piper and even the ghost of a dog still wandering in the cemetery. Since these supernatural phenomena occur less frequently, don’t let the fear take you.

So don’t hesitate and book a ticket for Edinburgh! Edinburgh castle is not an ordinary castle and it will make you travel back to the Renaissance during the reign of James V.

PHILIPPOT Marine, HONG Myriam & Delphine LY